Açık Erişim Açık Erişim  Sınırlandırılmış Erişim Abonelik veya Erişim Ücreti

Hadi Çav! Türkiye’den İtalya’ya Göç ve Göçmenlerin Aile İlişkileri

Gul Ince Beqo

Öz

Bu makale, Kuzey İtalya kentlerinde (Novara, Milano, Como ve Lecco) yaşayan 38 Türk ve Kürt göçmenle 2015-2017 yılları arasında gerçekleştirilen yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmeler aracılığıyla elde edilmiş verilere dayanan nitel bir araştırmanın sonuçlarını sunmaktadır. Araştırmanın asıl amacı göçün aile yaşantısı üzerindeki etkilerini anlamak olup göçmenlerin yeni hayatlarında hem ebeveyn hem de eş olarak dahası bu rollerin hepsine bir de göçmenlik sıfatını ekleyerek yaşantılarını nasıl düzenlediklerini irdelemektir. Özelliklere kadınlara kendilerini daha rahat ifade etme imkanı sağlayabilmek adına aile fertleri ile mümkün olduğu müddetçe ayrı ayrı görüşülmüştür. Araştırma sonuçları, Türkiye’den İtalya’ya göçün, ikili anlaşmalar bağlamında gerçekleşen diğer göç dalgalarına nazaran daha geç ortaya çıktığını, göçmenlerin İtalya’ nın belli başlı bazı bölgelerine yerleştiklerini ve buna bağlı olarak bu göç dalgasının kendine has özelliklere sahip olduğunu gösteriyor. Ayrıca, elde edilen sonuçlar kadın ve erkek göçmenlerin göç etmeye nasıl karar verdikleri, yol hikâyeleri, onlar için ailenin ne olduğu ve ne olması gerektiği, bu gerekliliklerin göç ortamında nasıl değiştiğine -değişmemesi gerektiğine- dair konularda toplumsal cinsiyet rollerinin ne kadar belirleyici olduğunu gösteriyor.

ABSTRACT IN ENGLISH

Migration from Turkey to Italy and Family Relationships among Migrants

This article presents the results of a qualitative study based on the data obtained from semi-structured interviews with 38 Turkish and Kurdish immigrants living in Northern Italy. The main aim of the study is to understand the effects of migration on marital relationships and to examine how migrants have arranged their family lives through their migration experience. The family members were interviewed separately as long as possible to enable women to express themselves more easily. The results indicate that while in other European countries –where the recruitment of Turkish workers was arranged through bilateral intergovernmental agreements– the Turkish migration is a solid phenomenon, Italy has experienced large–scale Turkish migration in the relatively recent past. Furthermore, the research results indicate that the migration decision is quite rarely a family decision, whereas the traditional family gender relationships shape all migration phases: i.e. decision for when to move; who to move; and how long to stay abroad are often determined by men. However, the migration experience shapes significantly the family experiences of both men and women migrants.

Anahtar Kelimeler

Göç; aile; toplumsal cinsiyet rolleri; İtalya; Türkiye’den göç; Migration; family; gender roles; Italy; emigration from Turkey

Tam Metin:

PDF

Referanslar

Akis, Y. (2016). Uluslararası Zorunlu Göç Literatüründe Toplumsal Cinsiyet: Başlıca Yaklaşımlar ve Eleştiriler, Küreselleşme Çağında Göç içinde, pp: 379- 398, Der. S. G. Ihlamur-Öner, N. A. Şirin Öner, İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.

Ambrosini, M. (2008). Un'altra globalizzazione: la sfida delle migrazioni transnazionali. Bologna: Il Mulino.

Ambrosini, M., Bonizzoni P., Triandafyllidou A. (2014). Family Migration in Southern Europe: Integration Challenges and Transnational Dynamics: an introduction, International Review of Sociology, 24 (3) pp: 367-373.

https://doi.org/10.1080/03906701.2014.954335

Armelloni, M. (2008). Comunità e ambiguità: Il caso dei rifugiati politici kurdi. M. Van Aken (Ed.). Milano rifugio. Napoli, Carta Editore.

Atasü-Topçuoğlu, R. (2012). Düzensiz Göç: Küreselleşmede Kısıtlanan İnsan Hareketliliği, Küreselleşme Çağında Göç içinde, pp: 501- 518, Der. S. G. Ihlamur-Öner, N. A. Şirin Öner, İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.

Bonifazi, C., Heins, F., Strozza, S., Vitiello, M. (2009). Italy: the Italian transition from an emigration to immigration country (Idea Working Papers, No. 5). Retrieved from: http://www.idea6fp.uw.edu.pl/pliki/WP5_Italy.pdf

Bonizzoni P. (2009). Living together again: families surviving Italian immigration policies, International Review of Sociology, 19 (1) pp: 83-10.

https://doi.org/10.1080/03906700802613954

Boyd M. (1989). Family and Personal Networks in International Migration: Recent Developments and New Agendas. International Migration Review, 23 (3) pp: 638-670.

https://doi.org/10.1177/019791838902300313

Boyd, M., Grieco, E. M., (2003). Women and migration: incorporating gender into international migration theory. Retrieved from Migration Policy Institute website: http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/women-and-migration-incorporating-gender-international-migration-theory

Bradatan, C., Sandu, D. (2012). Before Crisis: Gender and Economic Outcomes of the Two Largest Immigrant Communities in Spain, International Migration Review, 46(1) pp: 221-43.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2012.00885.x

Cohen, J. H., Sirkeci, I. (2011). Cultures of migration. The global nature of contemporary mobility. University of Texas Press, Austin.

https://doi.org/10.4337/9781784714123

Cohen, J. H., Sirkeci, I. (2016). Migration and insecurity: rethinking mobility in the neoliberal age. G. James (Ed.). After the Crisis, Anthropological thought, neoliberalism and the aftermath (pp. 96-113). London, New York: Routledge.

https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315657417-8

Curdi, la Turchia è pronta per collaborare con l'Italia (1997, December 29). La Repubblica. Retrieved from: http://www.repubblica.it/www1/fatti/curdi/turchita/turchita.html

De Haas, H. (2008). Migration and Development: A Theoretical Perspective. (International Migration Institute working papers n. 9). Retrieved from: https://www.imi.ox.ac.uk/pdfs/wp/wp-09-08.pdf

Çakırer, Y. (2010). Göç Trafiğinde Araftakiler: İtalya'daki Türkler, Kitap Bölümü : Yurtdışındaki Türkler: 50. Yılında Göç ve Uyum (Ed. M. Murat Erdoğan), Cilt: 2010, Sayfa: 763-768.

Faist, T. (1997). The crucial meso-level. T. Hammar, G. Brochmann, K. Tamas, & T. Faist (Ed.). International Migration, Immobility and Development: Multidissciplinary Perspectives (pp. 187-217). Oxford: Berg.

Fawcett, J.T. (1989). Networks, linkages and migration systems. International Migration Review, 3, Special Silver Anniversary Issue: International Migration an Assessment for the 90's (Autumn, 1989), pp. 671-80.

https://doi.org/10.1177/019791838902300314

Gurak, D.T., Caces, F. (1992). Migration networks and the shaping of migration systems. M.M. Kritz, L.L. Lim & H. Zlotnik (Ed.). International Migration Systems: A Global Approach. Oxford: Clarendon.

Hadi A. (2001). International migration and the change of women's position among the left-behind in rural Bangladesh. International Journal of Population Geography, (7) 2001, pp. 53-61.

https://doi.org/10.1002/ijpg.211

Halfacree, K. (2004). Untying migration completely: ce‐gendering or radical transformation?, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30 (2) pp: 397-413.

https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183042000200768

Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. (1992). Overcoming patriarchal constraints: the reconstruction of gender relations among Mexican immigrant women and men. Gender and Society. 6(3), pp. 393-415.

https://doi.org/10.1177/089124392006003004

Hondagneu-Sotelo P. (1994). Gendered transitions: Mexican experiences of immigration. University of California Press.

Hugo G. (2000). Migration and women empowerment. B. Harriet Presser and G. Sen (Ed.). Oxford University Press.

International Migration Report 2015 (2016). Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, 2016.

Istat (2017). Non-EU citizens: presence, new inflows and acquisition of citizenship, years 2016-2017. Retrieved from Istat website: https://www.istat.it/en/files/2017/10/ EN_Non-EU-citizens_2017.pdf?title=Non-EU+citizens+in+Italy+-+10+Oct+2017+-+EN_Non-EU+citizens_2017.pdf

Kanaiaupuni, S. M. (2000). Reframing the migration question: An analysis of men, women, and gender in Mexico. Social Forces, 78 (4), pp. 1311-1347.

https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/78.4.1311

Kofman, E. (2004). Family‐related migration: a critial review of European Studies. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, (30)2, pp. 243-262.

https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183042000200687

Morokvašić, M. (1984) Birds of passage are also women. International Migration Review, 18(4), p.p. 886-907.

https://doi.org/10.1177/019791838401800402

ORIM (2016) L'immigrazione straniera in Lombardia. (La quindicesima indagine regionale, Rapporto 2015). Giancarlo Blangiardo (Ed.). Retrieved from: http://www.integrazionemigranti.gov.it/Documenti-e-ricerche/Immigrazione%20straniera%20in%20Lombardia.pdf

Purkis, S., Güngör, F. (2015). Experiences of migrants from Turkey in Milan/Italy. İstanbul Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Dergisi, (53), pp. 1-29. Retrieved from http://dergipark.gov.tr/iusiyasal/issue/24500/259673

Purkis, S. (2019) Invisible Borders of the City for the Migrant Women from Turkey: Gendered Use of Urban Space and Place Making in Cinisello/Milan. Journal of Migration Integration, 20: 261.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s12134-018-0600-2

Scabini, E., Rossi, G. (Eds.). (2008). La migrazione come evento familiare. Studi Interdisciplinari sulla Famiglia n. 23, Vita&Pensiero.

Schwalbe M. L., Wolkomir M. (2003). Interviewing men. J. A. Holstein & Gubrium J. F. (Ed.). Inside Interviewing: New Lenses, New Concerns. Sage Publications.

Sirkeci, I. (2009). Transnational mobility and conflict. Migration Letters, (6)1, pp. 3-14.

https://doi.org/10.33182/ml.v6i1.82

Sirkeci, I., Cohen, J. (2016). Cultures of Migration and Conflict in Contemporary Human Mobility in Turkey. European Review, 24(3), 381-396.

https://doi.org/10.1017/S1062798716000119

Schuster, L. (2005). The continuing mobility of migrants in Italy: shifting between statuses and places. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31(4), pp. 757-774.

https://doi.org/10.1080/13691830500109993

Timmerman, C., Hemmerechts, K. (2015). The relevance of a 'culture of migration' and gender dynamics in understanding migration aspirations in contemporary Turkey. N. Abadan-Unat & G. Mirdal (Ed.). Emancipation in Exile Perspectives on the Empowerment of Migrant Women. Istanbul Bilgi University Press.

Tremila clandestini solo nell'ultimo anno. (1997, July 1). la Repubblica. Retrieved from: http://www.repubblica.it/online/fatti/curdi/tremila/tremila.html

Yabiku, S. T., Agadjanian, V., Sevoyan, A. (2010). Husbands' labour migration and wives' autonomy, Population Studies, 64(3), pp. 293-306.

https://doi.org/10.1080/00324728.2010.510200

Zeyneloğlu S., Sirkeci I. (2014). Türkiye'de Almanlar ve Almancılar, Göç Dergisi, 1 (1), pp: 77-118.

Zlotnik, H. (1995). Migration and the family. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, (4)2-3. Retrieved from: http://www.smc.org.ph/administrator/uploads/apmj_ pdf/APMJ1995N2-3ART4.pdf

https://doi.org/10.1177/011719689500400205

Zvonkovic, A., Greaves, K., Schmiege, C., Hall, L. (1996). The marital construction of gender through work and family decisions: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58 (1), pp: 91-100.

https://doi.org/10.2307/353379

Refback'ler

  • Şu halde refbacks yoktur.