Göçmen Dövizlerinin Etkileri ve Göç: Kuramsal Önermeler ve Fırsatlar

Jeffrey H Cohen

Öz

Göçmen dövizlerinin ulusal ekonomiler açısından taşıdığı önem son derece iyi belgelenmiştir ve bu akışın değeri, çok nadir olarak tartışmaya konu olmaktadır (bkz. Russell ve Teitelbaum, 1992). Bununla birlikte, göçmen dövizlerinin nasıl en iyi şekilde ele alınacağı ve çalışılacağı, küresel kapitalizme, ulusal ve yerel ekonomilere kattıkları parasal değerin nasıl değerlendirileceğine ilişkin birçok tartışma mevcuttur. Bu makalede, sosyal bilimler alanındaki göçmen dövizi çalışmalarını değerlendirip eleştiriyorum. Coğrafya, yerel tarih ve bir hanenin yaşam döngüsü aşamasını ulus ötesi süreçlerle birleştiren çağdaş mikro düzeydeki yaklaşımların, geçmişteki tek boyutlu yaklaşımlara çok önemli bir alternatif sunduğunu savunuyorum. Göçmen dövizinin etkileri konusuna geçmeden önce, kısaca göçü irdeleyeceğim; çünkü göçmen dövizleri yoktan var olmaz ve kişinin hane halkını, topluluğunu ve de çoğunlukla ülkesini terk etmesiyle başlayan karar alma sürecinin bir parçasıdır.

ABSTRACT IN ENGLISH

Remittance Outcomes and Migration: Theoretical Contests, Real Opportunities

The importance of migrant remittances to national economies is well documented and there is little debate over the value of these flows. Nevertheless, there remains a great deal of discussion over how best to approach and study migrant remittances, and how to judge the value of remittances to global capitalism, national budgets, and local economies. In this article, I review and critique remittance studies in the social sciences and argue that contemporary micro-level approaches that link geography, local history, and a household’s lifecycle stage with transnational processes offer a vital alternative to the unidimensional approaches of the past. Before I turn to remittance outcomes in particular, I first briefly examine migration, because remittances do not occur in a vacuum; rather, they are part of a decision-making process that begins with the choice to leave one’s household, community, and often nation.

Anahtar Kelimeler

göç; göçmen dövizleri; göçmen dövizlerinin etkileri; kuram; migration; remittances; remittance outcomes; theory

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