Birleşik Krallık’ta Mülteci Entegrasyon Politikaları ve Temel Yaklaşımlar
Anahtar Kelimeler:mülteci, entegrasyon politikaları, Birleşik Krallık, göç yönetimi, Refugee, integration policies, UK, migration management
Mülteci entegrasyonu konusu, Suriye’de başlayan olaylar sonrası çoğu Avrupa ülkesinde olduğu gibi Birleşik Krallık’ta da yeni gelenlerin entegrasyonu kapsamında sıkça tartışılır hale gelmiştir. Araştırmalar, I. ve II. Dünya Savaşları sırasındaki mülteci hareketlerinin Birleşik Krallık’ta temel mülteci politikalarının gelişimini etkilediğini göstermektedir. II. Dünya Savaşından sonra politika yaklaşımı asimilasyondan çok kültürlülüğe kayarken, 1990’lı yıllardaki politikalarda sığınmacı sayısının azaltılması amacıyla göçün sınırlanması yaklaşımı hakim olmuştur. Birleşik Krallık 2000-2008 yılları arasında AB’den gelen fonlarla mülteci hedefli politikalar uygulamış ve 2012 yılından itibaren mülteciler de artık diğer göçmenlerle birlikte topluluk uyumu politikaları kapsamında ele alınmaya başlamıştır. Birleşik Krallık, ana akım politika yaklaşımı, oldukça sınırlı yeniden yerleştirme programları ve güçlü bir şekilde yerelleşmeye dayalı entegrasyon stratejisi uygulamaktadır. Politikalarda zaman içinde değişim olmakla birlikte, ana politikalar temelde yapısal entegrasyonun kolaylaştırılması ile topluluk uyumunun sağlanmasına dayanmaktadır. Bu makale, Birleşik Krallık’ta uygulanan mülteci entegrasyon politikalarını ve temel yaklaşımları, tarihsel çerçeve ve mülteci entegrasyonuna ilişkin belgelerden hareketle kavramsallaştırmayı amaçlamaktadır.
ABSTRACT IN ENGLISH
Refugee Integration in the UK: Main Policies and Approaches
As most European countries, refugee integration has again become a highly debated issue within the scope of newcomers’ integration in the UK following the conflict in Syria. Researches show that the refugee movements during the First and Second World Wars influenced the development of the key refugee policies in the UK. Policy approaches after World War II have shifted from assimilation to multiculturalism. The UK adopted a restrictive approach to migration with the aim of reducing the number of asylum seekers and it became a dominant approach in regard to refugees during the 1990s. Accordingly, the UK implemented refugee targeted policies between 2000 and 2008 with the funding from the EU; and since 2012, refugees are considered part of the community cohesion policies along with other migrants. Although the policies have transformed over time, the key policies are primarily based on facilitating structural integration and implementing community cohesion. This article aims to conceptualize the UK’s refugee integration policies and key approaches through the historical framework based on the analysis of refugee integration documents.
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