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İtici ve çekici faktörler bağlamında iç göç: Gaye Hiçyılmaz'dan Fırtınaya Karşı

Ayten Er

Öz

Göç, toplumbilimsel açıdan, insanların ekonomik, toplumsal ve siyasal nedenlerle, bulundukları uzamdan geçici ya da sürekli olarak başka bir uzama yerleşmeleri olarak tanımlanır. “Uzamın”, “işin” ve “toplumsal ilişkilerin” değişmesi gibi parametreler üzerine kurulur; iç ve dış göç olmak üzere  ikiye ayrılır. Ülkemizin iç ve dış göç gerçeği yazında da sıklıkla ele alınır. Bu bağlamda Gaye Hiçyılmaz, ülkemizin iç göç gerçeğini ele aldığı Fırtınaya Karşı adlı yapıtında, kırdan kente  büyük umutlarla  “gönüllü” ya da “zorunlu göç” eden ailelerin yaşadığı düş kırıklıklarını gündeme getirir. Bu çalışmada, Fırtınaya Karşı (Hiçyılmaz, 1992, s. 53), göç kuramcıları arasında yerini alan Everett S. Lee’nin “itme-çekme modeli”ne göre değerlendirilmiştir. “İtici”/olumsuz (-) ve “çekici”/olumlu (+) faktörleri kapsayan modele göre, insanlar yaşadıkları uzamdan bir takım “itici faktörler”den dolayı ayrılarak, kendilerini “çekici faktörler”in beklediğine inandıkları başka uzamlara göç ederler. Birbirinden farklı olan bu faktörler, bireylerin beklentileriyle yakından ilgilidir. Göçün ardından, psikolojik uyum sorunu yaşanır ve beraberinde “bütünleşme”, “ayrışma”, “marjinelleşme” ve “asimilasyon” kavramlarını getiren  “kültürlenme” süreci başlar. Kırdan kente göç üzerine kurulan roman boyunca okur, “kır insanının” kendisine nasıl yabancılaştığına, ne yaparsa yapsın kentle gerçek anlamda asla bütünleşemediğine ve hep iki uzam arasında yani “araf”ta kaldığına tanık olur. Romanı büyükbabanın söylediği atasözüyle özetlemek olasıdır: “Güzel tüyler takınmakla tavus kuşu olunmaz”.

Migration, with regard to sociology, is defined as settling from the location they live into another place temporarily or permanently due to economic,  social and political reasons. It is built on the parameters such as the change of “location”, “work”, and “social relations”, and divided into two as internal migration and emigration. The reality of internal migration and emigration in our country is tackled in literature.  In this context, Gaye Hiçyılmaz, in her work Fırtınaya Karşı, in which she lays emphasis on the reality of internal migration of our country, brings forward the disillusions of the families immigrating to  urban from rural “voluntarily” or “involuntarily” with great expectations. In this article, Fırtınaya Karşı, has been examined in accordance with the “push and pull-” model of Everett S. Lee taking her place among the migration theorists. According to the model including “pushing”/negative and “pulling”/positive factors, leaving the currently lived place because of some “pushing factors”, people immigrate to the locations they believe “pulling factors” wait for them.  These factors which are different from each other are related to individuals’ expectations. Behind migration, the problem of psychological rapport appears and the “acculturation” process, bringing the concepts “integration”, “separation”, “marginalisation” and “assimilation”, starts. Throughout the novel built on the immigration from rural to urban, the reader witnesses how “rural people” feel alineated from themselves, whatever they do they never integrate into urban in real terms, and they are between these two places, that is they stay in “limbo”.  It is possible to summarize the novel with a proverb the grandfather says: “Putting on beautiful feathers does not make you a peacock.”

 

ENGLISH ABSTRACT

Internal migration in the context of pushing and pulling factors: Fırtınaya Karşı by Gaye Hiçyilmaz

Migration, with regard to sociology, is defined as settling from the location they live into another place temporarily or permanently due to economic, social and political reasons. It is built on the parameters such as the change of “location”, “work”, and “social relations”, and divided into two as internal migration and emigration. The reality of internal migration and emigration in our country is tackled in literature.  In this context, Gaye Hiçyılmaz, in her work Fırtınaya Karşı, in which she lays emphasis on the reality of internal migration of our country, brings forward the disillusions of the families immigrating to  urban from rural “voluntarily” or “involuntarily” with great expectations. In this article, Fırtınaya Karşı, has been examined in accordance with the “push and pull-” model of Everett S. Lee taking her place among the migration theorists. According to the model including “pushing”/negative and “pulling”/positive factors, leaving the currently lived place because of some “pushing factors”, people immigrate to the locations they believe “pulling factors” wait for them.  These factors which are different from each other are related to individuals’ expectations. Behind migration, the problem of psychological rapport appears and the “acculturation” process, bringing the concepts “integration”, “separation”, “marginalisation” and “assimilation”, starts. Throughout the novel built on the immigration from rural to urban, the reader witnesses how “rural people” feel alineated from themselves, whatever they do they never integrate into urban in real terms, and they are between these two places, that is they stay in “limbo”.  It is possible to summarize the novel with a proverb the grandfather says: “Putting on beautiful feathers does not make you a peacock.”

Anahtar Kelimeler

İç göç; kültürlenme; itme-çekme modeli; kent insanı; kır insanı; internal migration; acculturation; repulsion-attraction model; urban people; rural people

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